NEMA (Swiss Neue Maschine)Between 1938 and 1940, Germany supplied the Swiss government with a number of Enigma machines that were placed into service with the Swiss military and government diplomatic services. Suspecting, that both the Allies and the Germans were able to read their Enigma-coded traffic, the Swiss made a number of modifications to these machines. The result was an Enigma that was distinctly different from the standard commercial machine and which was commonly referred to as a 'Swiss Enigma K'.
A lack of confidence in the security of their cipher systems led the Swiss into designing and building their own cipher machine. The principal developers were Hugo Hadwiger, Heinrich Emil Weber and Paul Glur. Their machine was called NEMA (NEue MAschine) and the first working examples were not ready until 1945. It wasn't until 1947 until the Swiss Army and Air Force completed evaluations and began to use the machine. About 650 of these machines were manufactured for the Swiss military.
NEMA was was designated as the Type T-D [Tasten-Drücker-Maschine] and the serial numbers take the format of T-D XXX. In principle, the NEMA machine worked like the Enigma , but it had 10 rotors (arranged to work as 4 pairs of 2), a reflector rotor, a special "red" rotor but lacked the plugboard. There were two variants of the NEMA machine - a 'training' model and a 'service or military' model, both of which were incompatible with each other. A message encrypted on the training model could not be read on the service model.
After many years of use, the NEMA machine was retired from service by the Swiss government in 1992. Paul Glur, the last of the three designers of the NEMA machine, passed away on 2 December 2007, shortly after his 90th birthday. Please refer to David Hamer's web document for a more in-depth description of the NEMA machine. http://www.eclipse.net/~dhamer/nema2.htm
NEMA s/n TD494 overall view showing lid accessories. Closeup of keyboard and lamp panel. The machine nameplate is above the lampboard, slight to the left of centre. Closeup of cord storage in the lid. This view illustrates the power selector along with the teletype signal and power cord receptacles. All photos in this table by Richard Jelbert.
With cover raised exposing the indicator bulbs and rotors. The battery compartment is in the upper right hand corner. Rotor positioning in the NEMA. With the rotor assembly removed - rotor movement mechanism. View of left hand side of rotor, showing cams and signal exit contacts. Left side view of a rotor showing electrical signal entry contacts. Reflector rotor on spindle. Four encryption rotors with reflector on left. All photos in this table by Richard Jelbert.
|Accessories: Battery, lamp adapter, cleaning brush and keys. The
blue battery has the following text on it:
BATTERIE 4,5V. Leclanche
|All photos in this table by Richard Jelbert.|
The above machine is the military model and is not compatible with the school type. In order to protect the secrets of the military transmissions, the Swiss army downgraded approximately 150 to 200 NEMA machines in order to adapt them for instructional use. Dimensions : 14 ½" x 13" x 5 ½" .Weight: 13 kg. (Photo via E-bay)
Operator's manual. Entklassifiert means unclassified by the Swiss Army. (Photo via E-bay) Carrying case. (E-bay photo)
Credits and Contributors:
1) Richard Jelbert <richard(at)jelbert.com>
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